How to Design floor for warehouses ?
The warehouse floor is a key element as it is the foundation of everything. All activities that take place in a warehouse will take place on this floor. It is very important to pay special attention to everything related to it. From the types of loads it will support to the substrate or the finishing layer. How to Design floor for warehouses ?
Types of Cargo:
It must be considered that not all loads that the floor must support are equal. The pavement is capable of withstanding very high loads of two types: static and dynamic.
The loads generated under the columns of the shelves are of the punctual type, of great intensity, concentrated in a very small surface and distributed evenly.
Especially in the grating of the floor for warehouse . This is something very disturbing for most builders, causing them great concern, as these loads reach values of 7 or 8 tons.
Even more than that, concentrating on a small surface – that of the profile section of the abutment – in just 80 or 100 cm2.
Dynamic loads caused by handling equipment circulating over very narrow corridors are also very intense and vary depending on the type of equipment used.
In other types of moving elements, the heaviest loads occur when they are stationary. A very significant example is that of trilateral forklifts. It greatest effect on the floor is when they are depositing or assuming a weight at full height and the forks are extended laterally. At that moment, the pressure exerted on the load wheels reaches such high values that they can go beyond the resistance limits of the floors. This effort is transmitted directly to the sides of the runners.
What is meant by adequate pavement?:
The mission of a pavement (and its foundation) is to support. Transfer the loads described above, from the surface of the ground downwards, until they reach the level of the subsoil. This applies to both dynamic loads, caused by moving machines, and static loads, generated by racking columns. Therefore, the right floor is one that has the hardness and stability necessary to perform these tasks.
It is critical to observe the ground level specifications to ensure proper warehouse operation.
Achieving these goals with quality is the responsibility of designers and builders.
The importance of the substrate:
The soil substrate is very variable and can present enormous differences between two places. Although they are very close and even within the same space. It means that there may be substantial variations between different points in the same place.
To know the values of these factors at a given location and find out how they can vary at different depths, it is necessary to carry out an in situ analysis.
It is essential to ensure that the warehouse floor substrate will provide a fully adequate behavior for the load. It will be placed on the floor that will rest on it. Depending on the results obtained with the necessary analyses.
The characteristics of this very important part of the soil decisively influence the foundation. For its realization, from simple support shoes or running shoes of greater or lesser width to.
In the most extreme cases, a reinforced shoe can be used. On some occasions, the characteristics of the soil substrate make it necessary to vary the position of the shelves’ pillars. They can coincide with the points that offer the necessary guarantees.
Concrete slabs have a high compressive strength, however, they do not have much tensile strength. During its curing process, the concrete undergoes contractions, which does not occur with the conglomerate sub-base. These contractions cause tensions in the slabs, which can cause, consequently, fortuitous breakages and warping. To alleviate these problems it is necessary to ensure that the substrate surface on it.
The board rests is completely smooth and smooth.
Once this point is verified. A kind of membrane or film is introduced between the sub-base and the substrate to reduce the friction between them.
Another measure to alleviate the problem of potential breakage and frequent warping is to install a light reinforcement wire mesh that is close to the surface. This is a very common practice that allows the construction of longer slabs and with fewer expansion joints.
Whatever their origin, they can be a source of problems as they can wear out due to the continuous passage of forklifts.
These screws must have a free-sliding end, equipped with a plastic sleeve incorporated into one of the slabs.
On the other hand, the expansion joints must have a width proportional to the thickness of the slab, although never above 10 mm. Even though it is possible to do them at any point, it is always preferable to avoid places where high specific loads occur, that is, away from the shelving struts.
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